Norway, Sweden and Denmark are the three Scandinavian countries, with Nordic nations Finland and Iceland sometimes included in a broader definition.
The words Scandinavia, Nordic and northern Europe are used interchangeably by some, but they are in actual fact three distinct regions of Europe.
Norway and Sweden share the Scandinavian peninsula, which stretches from way north of the Arctic Circle down to the shores of the Baltic Sea, covering a total area of around 289,500 square miles. Let's take a closer look at the three Scandinavian countries:
The terrain of Norway varies hugely, from high mountain plateaus down to fjords that were carved out by retreating and melting glaciers. Some glacial ice still remains on higher ground. The extensive coastline runs for more than 15,000 miles (25,000 km) and is known for its countless fjords and islands.
Although Norway's climate is like the rest of northern Europe quite cold and wet, it is not as cold as some expect due to the warming effect of the Gulf Stream.
Norway's economy is driven by its massive petroleum, gas and energy industries, but shipping and fishing are especially important, with seafood being the country's second biggest export after energy. The population of roughly 5.3 million enjoy one of the highest standards of living in the world.
The Norwegian capital city is Oslo, home to around 600,000 people, but more than one million live in the surrounding region. The Vigeland Sculpture Park (pictured above) remains a huge tourist draw and is rated as the number one free tourist attraction in the country.
Over the past fifteen years, the city's ugly waterfront has been transformed with staged redevelopment including new apartments, shopping malls, walkways, cycle paths, a new business district, an iconic Opera House.
Although it shares the vast peninsular with Norway, Sweden looks and feels quite different. Mountains line the western border, but much of the rest of the country is flat and known for its huge number of lakes.
Its population of almost 10 million makes it easily the biggest Scandinavian country. Much of that population lives in the southern part of the country, in or around the major cities.
The country's economy is driven by manufacturing, timber and energy, but technology is playing an ever more important role. Although agriculture and farming are only of partial importance, the nation does produce plenty of barley, wheat, meat and dairy products.
The capital of Sweden is also the biggest city in the entire Nordic region. Almost 1 million people live in the municipality with a further half a million in the wider urban area. Stockholm is the seat of Swedish government, the highest court in the country, and the centre of culture, media and business for Sweden.
Despite its urban nature, Stockholm is just as well known for its fourteen islands and the astonishing archipelago of thousands of islands.
Last but not least, Denmark occupies the land known as the Jutland peninsula, immediately to the north of Germany. It is the only one of the Scandinavian countries not to have any land on the Scandinavian peninsular. At just 16,638 square miles (about 43,000 square km), Denmark is also the smallest of the three.
The country is distinct from its northerly neighbours as it's largely made up of low, flat plains. The highest point in the nation is only 561 feet (171m) above sea level.
Denmark's economy is modern with a high-tech agricultural sector and advanced manufacturing operations. It is home to world-leading companies in pharma, maritime and renewable energy, and is a net exporter of food, oil and gas.
Around three-quarters of a million people live in Copenhagen, with around two million people living either in the city or within commuting distance. It is hugely popular with tourists, not least because of the popularity of modern Danish design.
Recent years have seen a boom in modern architecture in Copenhagen and the city was even named as the best design city in the world by Monocle magazine.
Nordic nations Finland and Iceland are sometimes included in a broader definition of Scandinavia, but this is not technically correct. However, they both have Nordic cross flags and share a certain amount of culture and history in common with the Scandinavian countries.
At just under 5.5 million people, Finland has a similar population to Norway. Capital city Helsinki is home to the 18th-century Suomenlinna sea fortress, the mega-hip Design District and fascinating range of museums.
Although the country shares much with its neighbours to the west, the Finnish language is completely different. However, most Finnish schoolchildren learn Swedish as a second language, and are also fluent in English by the time they become adults.
With a population of less than half a million people, Iceland is the smallest of the principal Nordic nations by quite some way. Yet despite this, the country somehow manages to punch way above its weight. Tourism is a massive draw to the island, in particular to the world-famous Blue Lagoon geothermal spa.